In the tissue level of cell damage, the stimulus can lead to a reaction called inflammation. Inflammation is a multifaceted response that increases the effects of wound, eliminates the injured tissue, and produces new one. It achieves this by weakening, terminating, and neutralizing injurious agents.
General Features of Inflammation
Inflammation is the response of tissues to cell damage or loss. It is regarded as the expansion of inflammatory facilitator of fluid movement, and leukocytes from the fluid carrying vessel system into the outside blood or lymph vessel group of cells (Murphy, 2008). Inflammation can be acute or chronic (Medzhitov, 2008).
Acute inflammation is the adaptive reaction that is caused by harmful stimuli and disorders (for example, infection and tissue damage). Contrary to acute inflammation, chronic inflammation is linked with the proliferation of the capillary through which blood flows, tissue necrosis, and scarring of connective tissue.
Acute and chronic inflammation may coexist with occurrences of acute inflammation being overlaid on chronic inflammation.
Cells of Inflammation
Several cells and tissue constituents take part in the inflammatory process of the cells that line the capillary through which blood flows circulating platelets and leukocytes, connective tissue cells (mast cells, fibroblasts, tissue macrophages), and components of the extracellular surrounding substance (Schmid-Schonbein, 2006). The primary leukocytes in acute inflammation are neutrophils, while macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma, eosinophil, and mast cells predominate in chronic inflammation.
Acute inflammation is the local reaction to an adverse agent that helps distribute leukocytes and plasma proteins to the wound. The typical signs of an acute inflammatory response are redness, bump, aching, and damage of function. It also includes the phase of blood flow within the organs and tissues of the body with enlarged capillary porousness and the cellular level. This process takes place when phagocytic leukocytes enter the area to submerge and destroy the inflaming agent. The inflammatory response is coordinated by chemical intermediaries like cytokines and chemokines, histamine, prostaglandins, complement fragments, and reactive molecules that are liberated by leukocytes.
Acute inflammation may involve the production of exudates containing serous fluid (serous exudate), red blood cells (hemorrhagic exudate), fibrinogen (fibrinous exudates), and leukocyte collapse products.
Contrary to acute inflammation, chronic inflammation includes the presence of mononuclear cells (lymphocytes and macrophages) and is known as a causative in some disease conditions. It is linked with extreme and inappropriate triggering of the immune system with an autoimmune disorder. It may trigger the state of low-grade inflammation linked with conditions, such as atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and may induce, promote, or impact on exposure to cancer by causing DNA destruction, rousing tissue reparative proliferation.
Moreover, chronic inflammation creates environment that is enriched with cytokines and growth factors that favor tumor development and growth.
Impact on health care and disability services
The inflammatory response is a life-threatening component of the immune reaction to damage and infection. As a result, chronic disease is now the main cause of disability adjusted with the years (Battle, 2009).
Public health importance of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as disease burden
Public health importance of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as disease burden, is an example of a developing adaptive response that becomes poorly adapted in the present environmental health situation of chronic inflammatory diseases. In spite of its positive role attacking disease, scientists have just discovered that chronic inflammation, at low levels, is quite harmful and causes many chronic conditions.
According to Constance Urciolo Battle (2009), growth of expected length of life leads to rise in the number of chronic inflammatory diseases, which ultimately cause an increased share of the entire disease burden (p.249).
As medical research advanced and general mode of living enhanced, the most chronic inflammatory diseases is now curable. As a result, human can now live longer. Additionally, improving public health will result in the ability to recognize the threat factors, disease methods or means, and health importance of chronic disorders.
Battle, C. U. (2009). Essentials of Public Health Biology: A Guide for the Study of Pathophysiology. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Medzhitov, R. (2008). Origins and physiologic roles of inflammation. Nature Insight Review 454 (24), 428-435.
Murphy, H.S. (2008). Inflammation. In E. Rubin and D. Strayer (Eds.), Rubin’s pathology: Clinicopathologic foundations of medicine (pp. 37-70). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Schmid-Schonbein, G. W. (2006). Analysis of inflammation. Annual Review of Biochemistry 8, 93-131.