COVID-19: The John Hopkins University Medical School Database

Paper Info
Page count 4
Word count 1173
Read time 5 min
Topic Health
Type Report
Language 🇺🇸 US


This paper aims to analyze the Coronavirus database, which John Hopkins University Medical School maintains, to understand the general information regarding the virus and how it is spreading in various countries and at which rate. The data from the database will also help when answering the general questions regarding the Coronavirus. These questions mostly address how effective herd immunity is as a strategy of mitigating the virus.


The following table shows countries with the highest and lowest Coronavirus incidence and related deaths.

Most Cases Least Cases Most Deaths Least Deaths
United States Vanuatu United States Vanuatu
India Micronesia Brazil Timor-Leste
Brazil Samoa Mexico Solomon Islands

(COVID-19 Map – Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center, 2021)

Difference between Bacteria and Viruses

The outstanding feature that distinguishes a bacterium from a virus is the size. A virus is much thinner than a bacterium, and it has a protein coat and a core that contain genetic material of either RNA or DNA (Bradley et al. 154). The virus cannot survive without a host, and, therefore, their mode of reproduction is by attaching to the body cells. One characteristic that makes the virus dangerous is its ability to reprogram specific body cells, liver or blood cells, and eventually burst and die or become cancerous cells. On the other hand, a bacterium is a single-celled microbe with no nucleus or nuclear membrane (Bradley et al. 155). The bacteria’s ability to rapidly multiply outweighs the host’s tissues, thereby disrupting the host’s body’s normal functioning. Bacteria can sometimes be dangerous since they can instantly kill the cells or produce toxins that can equally paralyze or terminate the cell’s metabolic functioning

Spreading of Novel Coronavirus among Humans

While the specific animal that initiated the novel Coronavirus has not been fully established, research indicates that it was transmitted from bats to human beings through snakes. This assumption is backed by the fact that Wuhan was the epicenter of the virus and had a notable market that sells wild animals from bats to snakes, marmots to rabbits (Singhal 184). With the help of enzyme RNA, the virus can replicate its RNA genomes responsible for the continuous multiplication of the virus.

The virus is spreading at an alarming rate among human beings. The SARS-CoV-2 virus is responsible for the existence of COVID-19. With the proximity between humans, the virus can transmit from one person to another (Singhal 185). While coughing, speaking, singing, sneezing, or breathing heavily, an infected person can equally transmit the virus to another close person. The liquid particles from such activities range from big respiratory droplets to small aerosols. Research indicates that the virus’s primary mode of transmission is respiratory droplets that end up landing on the mouth or nose of people at close contact.

Consequently, the virus can be transmitted through aerosol transmission, which occurs in a specific setting. While indoors, the virus can be channeled from an infected person to another person if the room is overcrowded and is not well ventilated. This kind of setting is not limited to restaurants, nightclubs, fitness centers, or congregations. Additionally, if an infected person coughs or sneeze and releases saliva droplets, the aerosols may land on nearby surfaces (Singhal 186). The virus can be transmitted when a person touches a surface that contains the virus and immediately touches his or her eyes or mouth. It is possible to contract this virus if an individual pokes the nose with a contaminated hand that has not been thoroughly washed.

COVID-19 and Rate of Transmission

The replication-competent of the virus is responsible for the increased rate of virus transmission. The virus has shown an instance where it replicates its genomic RNA (Bradley et al. 158). Once the virus is in the human body, it bursts open, affecting the neighboring body cell. Therefore, the cells start to produce full-length copies of genomic RNA. This replication-competent indicates that the virus is continuously multiplying itself, making it more deadly than any other virus (Bradley et al. 154). With this characteristic, the virus can spread from one geographical area to another at an alarming rate.

Social Factors Affect the Rate of COVID Transmission

Social gatherings have made it difficult to ensure social distancing. For many years, society has learned to thrive and stay together without necessarily minding social distancing. Therefore, it has been a challenge to inform the public to forgo their norms and cultures due to the virus. Church or mosque gatherings became hot spots for the rapid spread of COVID. Nightclubs, public rallies, and other places that entertain public meetings have also been hot spots that have accelerated the virus’s spread.

Herd Immunity

Herd immunity is a type of immunity that a considerable number of the general population gets as a result of being exposed to the infectious disease, thus preventing further spread. It can be achieved through vaccination, personal recovery or infection (CDC). This type of immunity is crucial since it protects the class, which is impossible to vaccinate, like the newborn and immunocompromised individuals. However, it is not advisable to rely on herd immunity as a strategy to eradicate the Coronavirus. According to the World Health Organization, for herd immunity to be effective, 60% of the total population has to be infected and recover first (Sohrabi et al. 74). This approach can overwhelm the healthcare system leading to mass deaths. It is unclear whether herd immunity can be effective in the future; thus, relying on herd immunity can worsen the COVID situation.

Boosting Vaccine Development

The Ebola epidemic portrays the true nature of pharmaceutical industries: they are profit-oriented. Of course, it is of no benefit to producing a commodity that is not profitable, but it is wrong to stop the production of a vaccine of a disease that once threatens to wipe the entire human race. Therefore, to prevent such a scenario from happening in the case of COVID vaccine production, the government has to take the initiative to protect the pharmaceutical industries responsible for producing the vaccine (Bradley et al. 159). The government should provide incentives to these industries and the assurance of patent rights. In addition, the government should buy those vaccines in large quantities and stock in government warehouse to reduce the dead stock of the pharmaceutical industries involved in the production of the drug as it makes a preparation in case of future re-occurrence of the pandemic.


In conclusion, the John Hopkins University Medical School database’s data indicates that the COVID pandemic has intensely hit the United States. The virus’s transmission rate is high because the virus is rapidly multiplying, and as a result, an average person inhales the small aerosols of the liquid particles. The rapidly growing transmission rate can be linked with the social factors that include public gatherings and church or mosque congregation. It is wrong to depend on herd immunity as a strategy to eradicate the Coronavirus. Therefore, the government should ensure that there is the mass production of the vaccines, and they should buy and store them for future consumption if the need arises.

Works Cited

Bradley, Phelim, et al. “Ultrafast Search of All Deposited Bacterial and Viral Genomic Data.” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 37, no. 2, 2019, pp. 152-159.

“Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)”. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Web.

“COVID-19 Map – Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center”. Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center. Web.

Singhal, Tanu. “A review of Coronavirus disease-2019 (Covid-19).” The Indian Journal of Pediatrics vol. 87, no. 4, 2020, pp. 281-286.

Sohrabi, Catrin, et al. “World Health Organization declares global emergency: A review of the 2019 novel Coronavirus (COVID-19).” International Journal of Surgery, vol. 76, 2020, pp. 71-76.

Cite this paper


NerdyBro. (2022, July 28). COVID-19: The John Hopkins University Medical School Database. Retrieved from


NerdyBro. (2022, July 28). COVID-19: The John Hopkins University Medical School Database.

Work Cited

"COVID-19: The John Hopkins University Medical School Database." NerdyBro, 28 July 2022,


NerdyBro. (2022) 'COVID-19: The John Hopkins University Medical School Database'. 28 July.


NerdyBro. 2022. "COVID-19: The John Hopkins University Medical School Database." July 28, 2022.

1. NerdyBro. "COVID-19: The John Hopkins University Medical School Database." July 28, 2022.


NerdyBro. "COVID-19: The John Hopkins University Medical School Database." July 28, 2022.


NerdyBro. 2022. "COVID-19: The John Hopkins University Medical School Database." July 28, 2022.

1. NerdyBro. "COVID-19: The John Hopkins University Medical School Database." July 28, 2022.


NerdyBro. "COVID-19: The John Hopkins University Medical School Database." July 28, 2022.