When the Human Immunodeficiency virus enters a human body it specifically targets the CD4 helper cells commonly known as the T-Cells. When HIV kills this cell, the body’s ability to fend off other pathogens is harmed. T cells are needed for cell-mediated immunity, which is an immune response in which immune cells are activated to combat infection. T cells are responsible for both actively destroying infected cells and signaling other immune cells which are the b-cells to join the immune reaction (Jajarmi and Baleanu, 2018).
Antibodies are proteins formed by the body’s b-cells in response to pathogens. In CD4+ T cells, B cells, and antigen-presenting cells, viral replication takes place (nucleusanimation). Antibody and Cell-mediated reactions evolve in infected cells, just as they do in many other viral diseases. Cytotoxic CD8+ T cells specialized for HIV receptor antigens, as well as NK cells dealing with target cell bound HIV envelope protein gp120, are examples of cell-mediated effector mechanisms (Diagnostics CD4 T cell differentiation). Antibodies to gp20 are made, and these antibodies intervene in b-cell-dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC) against HIV-infected cells. HIV gp120 binds to CD4 glycoprotein on the cell surface and also in the cytoplasm of the pathogen attacked cells Gp120 can induce cytolysis by T, NK cells, or ADCC on the cell surface of CD4+ cells. CD4 transport to the plasma membrane is hampered by interactions between CD4 and gp120 in the cytoplasm (Jajarmi and Baleanu, 2018).
Failure to get a response that T-cells send the lead to an eventual collapse of the t-cells and this leads to a decline in CD4+ cells in HIV infected people. This is distinguished by a lack of T cell assistance for CD8 and antibody reactions, as well as the emergence of opportunistic infections (Jajarmi and Baleanu, 2018).
Diagnostics, Creative, director. CD4 T Cell Differentiation. YouTube, YouTube, 2017. Web.
Jajarmi, A., & Baleanu, D. (2018). A new fractional analysis on the interaction of HIV with CD4+ T-cells. Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, 113, 221-229.
Nucleusanimation, Nucleus Medical, director. Medical Animation: HIV and AIDS. YouTube, YouTube, 2013. Web.