General Risk Factors for Bacterial Meningitis
Bacterial meningitis has a number of risk factors. When assessing a patient, the physician seeks to decide if the patient has any risk factor and determines the course of action. Patient S.F underwent a medical assessment to check her symptoms and find risk factors in order to come up with a method of treatment. Among the risk factors identified in the patient included having a history of cataract surgery and work setting that involves meeting many people. Other risk factors associated with meningitis include travelling, age, working with meningitis-causing pathogens and community settings (Thigpen et al., 2010).
Pathophysiological Mechanisms for Bacterial Meningitis in the Patient
In a bacterial meningitis patient, an inflammatory response acts as a main catalyst and it supports pathophysiological mechanisms (Hughes et al., 2010). According to the patient’s data, environmental factors that improve the susceptibility to bacterial meningitis are among the pathophysiological mechanisms. The factors impacted her because her condition changed from the initial state to the current state hours later after being admitted. The CSF of the patient was not clear, and invasion into her intravascular space and survival within the bloodstream was the main cause (Hughes et al., 2010). The two mechanisms were among the pathophysiological mechanisms attributed to bacterial meningitis.
Interpretation of Key Diagnostic Laboratory Values
From the test results of S.F, a true infection was present in her, and the physician attended to it. However, it is important to note that the patient was at a higher risk of developing complications because of the altered mental state and other symptoms that included slurred speech and signs of confusion (Thigpen et al., 2010). As a result, it was important for the physician to take the illness seriously to avoid life-long effects and possible death. On the other hand, test results decided the intensity and type of treatment method that was applicable on S.F.
Glasgow Coma Score and Interpretation of Neurological Evaluation
From the data and test laboratory results, the Infectious Disease (ID) physician put S.F on treatment. However, the medications prescribed on F.S were an indication that her Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) was 3. The figure presented attributed to patients diagnosed with meningitis and from their physical examinations, some signs associated with streptococcal meningitis that included altered mental status were observed (Brouwer, Tunkel, & van de Beek, 2010). From S.F’s neurological evaluation, the condition was serious, and the patient needed immediate attention for it to improve.
Specific rationale for Ordered Medication
Surgical craniotomy with insertion is necessary so that a physician can check the inter-cranial pressure of a patient (Brouwer, Tunkel, & van de Beek, 2010). In monitoring, the patient’s condition is brought under control. It was good to use the intervention as S.F was in an altered mental condition and needed stabilization. A vasopressin infusion prescription happened so that plasma osmolality could regulate blood pressure (Brouwer, Tunkel, & van de Beek, 2010). On the other hand, a norepriphrine infusion was also administered on the patient so as to make her blood pressure lower and be stable (Brouwer, Tunkel, & van de Beek, 2010). The two infusions applied because they help to lower the mortality possibility in a patient (Brouwer, Tunkel, & van de Beek, 2010).
How Cerebral Edema Impacts Cerebral Perfusion and the four stages of Increasing ICP
Cerebral edema is a dangerous situation and if in a patient, a doctor should act quickly to make sure that the patient’s condition is manageable. Cerebral edema and cerebral perfusion relate because cerebral perfusion helps to regulate blood pressure in the cranial compartment (Thigpen et al., 2010). When a physician is increasing intracranial pressure, there are four stages applicable and they include aetiology, presentation, investigations and management (Brouwer, Tunkel, & van de Beek, 2010). The pathological process demands attention so that the physician does not mess up things and make sure the safety of the patient.
Effects of Empyema in Brain Tissues
Empyema is a dangerous condition that affects the tissues of the brain and manfactures pus that changes the formation of the tissues (Hughes et al., 2010). The fluid contains an infection and in patients with meningitis, it is life-threatening. On the other hand, empyema is responsible for causing inflammation to the tissues, and when this happens, the tissues do not perform as they should (Hughes et al., 2010). As a result, a severe form of empyema develops, and can lead to shocks. If the pus in the tissues remains, the patient’s life is at stake.
Most Important Nursing Diagnoses and Medical Interventions for each
There is more than one diagnosis applicable to S.F. However, there are two that are the most important and that demand interventions. First, S.F has impaired physical immobility related to infusions. However, the condition is treatable and preventing complications associated with immobility such as pressure ulcers will work for S.F. another diagnosis for the patient is risk related to impaired skin immobility. However, the condition is manageable if an assessment of her neurological status underwent review and managed effectively.
Positive outcome and what I could have done differently
As per the prescription the patient, I will have treated the patient in the same way. If I could have done things differently, I would have confused the medication and in the process, tampered with the well-being of the patient.
Brouwer, M. C., Tunkel, A. R., & van de Beek, D. (2010). Epidemiology, diagnosis, and antimicrobial treatment of acute bacterial meningitis. Clinical microbiology reviews, 23(3), 467-492.
Hughes, D. C., Raghavan, A., Mordekar, S. R., Griffiths, P. D., & Connolly, D. J. A. (2010). Role of imaging in the diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis and its complications. Postgraduate medical journal, 86(1018), 478-485.
Thigpen, M. C., Whitney, C. G., Messonnier, N. E., Zell, E. R., Lynfield, R., Hadler, J. L.,… & Schuchat, A. (2011). Bacterial meningitis in the United States, 1998–2007. New England Journal of Medicine, 364(21), 2016-2025.