Salmonella is an epidemic that has caused several health hazards to various groups of people. It has claimed lives, and many resources have been spent to help control the spread of the bacteria. However, the only practical way that can help in controlling the bacteria is through prevention methods. As opposed to treatment methods, several prevention strategies have been adopted. Prevention strategies ensure that the bacteria are not allowed to get into the body of an individual. It usually ranges from adopting mechanisms that kill the bacteria to lowering the impact of the disease-causing organism. Usually, the prevention strategies are grouped into three groups; primary, secondary, and tertiary approaches.
Primary Prevention Strategy
Primary prevention strategies are aimed at preventing the organism from getting into the body. This implies that it is carried out by eliminating exposure factors to the Salmonella bacteria. Additionally, it alters the unhealthy practices that can cause the spread of the bacteria and increases the disease’s resistance should an individual get exposed. The primary invention measures include putting legislation to ban open defecation in rural areas.
In Trinidad and Tobago, the majority of the foodstuffs are obtained from the rural setup. However, a lot of people in rural areas practice open defecation. As a result, Salmonella bacteria is highly contagious and can be transferred when one is in direct contact with the feces (Angulo et al., 2004). But being that many people use fields, forests, bushes, open bodies of water, beaches, or any other open areas, it is easy for the bacteria to get in touch with the food products. Therefore, banning open defecation will significantly lower the spread of the disease.
Secondly, education on safety habits can significantly lower the spread of Salmonella. The bacteria spread through contaminated water and food staff. However, it can be eliminated by washing the hands with soap before handling the food products. Additionally, foodstuffs should be cooked appropriately in order to kill all the bacteria that could have found themselves in the food products. Educating the public will help prevent the spread of the bacteria because it will ensure that any factors that can lead to the occurrence of Salmonella are handled before the germ gets inside the body. Thirdly, immunization is a primary prevention strategy that can be used to curb the spread of Salmonella. Immunization prepares the body from the attack by the bacteria, thus making it possible to naturally release antibodies that can fight the disease and eliminate the germs from the system.
Secondary Prevention Strategy
Secondary prevention strategy focuses on reducing the impact of Salmonella bacteria that has already occurred. This usually happens when the disease is detected early, and appropriate treatment measures are administered to cure the diseases. The treatment methods usually slow down the progress of the bacteria to help the person return to his or her normal life or, in other words, prevent severe long-term effects. Secondary strategies include, first, regular screening and testing to detect the presence of Salmonella bacteria. Through this, the bacteria can be detected at an early stage, and proper treatment can be recommended, thus preventing the further spread of the bacteria. Second, treating Salmonella in domestic animals such as livestock and poultry. Domestic animals are the leading carriers of the Salmonella bacteria. Therefore, treating them kills the bacteria in thus eliminating the dissemination of the germs with the feces (Angulo et al., 2004). Additionally, treating the disease using recommended antibacterial drugs is also a prevention strategy. The antibacterial eliminates the bacteria from the body, thus restoring the individual’s heath to the previous state.
Tertiary Prevention Strategy
Tertiary prevention strategy focuses on lessening the impact of the active bacteria in the body. It usually occurs by helping the infected persons to avoid long-term complex health problems that can be realized. Generally, the strategy aims to improve life expectancy and the quality of life that the victims often experience. First, organization should form a support group to enable members to share methods of enhancing their ways of living. This will ensure that members learn the importance of adopting safety lifestyle that can prevent the spread of the disease. Second, organizing rehabilitation programs is a tertiary strategy that helps in preventing the disease. It simply implies that victims of the disease can be rehabilitated by offering advice and training them on healthy measures, thereby avoiding the impact of the disease. That, at times, can lead to depression.
The Difference in Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Prevention Strategies
The primary strategies differ from the other tactics in that the technique prevents the issue by anticipating that the problem will occur. All the activities at this stage are aimed at eliminating any risks that can cause health issues. For instance, educating the public on safety habits ensures that the community is aware of the causes of the disease; hence, they can easily prevent the sources. In regards to the second strategy, the approach aims to reduce the effects of the bacteria present in the body. This implies that it neutralizes the effects of the bacteria, which usually ensures that the patient gets back to their everyday lives. Finally, the tertiary strategy focuses on minimizing the effects of the bacteria in the body. It prevents the long-term complex health issues that an individual may incur. In other words, it improves the quality of life after suffering from the bacteria.
Which effective prevention strategies can be used to curb the transfer of salmonella bacteria in the Caribbean for children of 4 years and below?
The research design that will be used in this study will be observational. Observational research focuses on looking at the behavior of the people and associating it with the health issue. The target sample is analyzed in their natural environment without interfering with the way they operate. The researcher has no control over the independent variables, which implies that they only focus on the already infected patients. It is a form of case-control study where cases refer to the infected population while the controls are the uninfected population.
The Importance of Further Research for Improving the Quality of Health
The main importance of further research is that it can help identify some of the omitted issues and improve the preventive strategies, thus, eliminating the effects. Further study will also reveal some of the adverse impacts of the methods used to treat the disease, and this will help in adopting some effective measures, thus, improving the quality of life. The potential benefit of more studies is that it will lower the infant mortality rate that is often experienced when the disease strikes.
Angulo, F. J., DeLong, S. M., Indar-Harrinauth, L., Hospedales, J., MBBS, Tauxe, R., Flint, J., Jones, R. C., & Galanis, E. (2004). Salmonella in the Caribbean. A classroom case study: Students version. Web.