Sickle cell is a genetically inherited red blood cell disease where the red blood cells are attacked and carry less oxygen. Red blood cells in a sickle cell patient are shaped in a crescent moon instead of around. The red cell can stick in the minor blood vessels, leading to a blockage of continuous blood flow and oxygen supply to some parts of the body. Physical symptoms include infections, acute chest syndrome, anemia, and stroke (Kwateng, n.d.). Sickle cell disease is mainly associated with African American youths. There is not enough proven data on how this disease correlates with black lace.
Racial biases are a personal belief of one race is superior to the other. It involves negative attitudes, immoral behavioral acts towards another race, differential treatment, and terrible health aftermath (Wakefield et al., 2017). Besides, it can lead to low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Racial bias consists of different types, such as subtle racism, internalized racism, and reverse racism. Internalized racism is the most common type of racism associated with colorism. Subtle racism refers to hidden or not obvious discrimination. Reverse racism is prejudice caused by the favoritisms of the minor groups to level the bar with the general population. An increase in racial biases can generally affect human health, making them vulnerable to disease. Sickle cell disease is commonly referred to as ‘black disease’ in the medicinal community.
Research has shown that African American children and youth suffering from sickle cell disease do not get an immediate response in emergency rooms (Dyal et al., 2019). children with other medical conditions such as borne fractures are given priority in the emergency rooms. The appropriate medicine is not administered to them, leading to dire pains. Black parents to children who have sickle cell disease tend to view medical facilities as they wait long hours with their sick children.
Sickle cell disease is often associated with African Americans, which leads them to be vulnerable to discrimination from other races. However, it gives misleading information as there is no scientific proof. The United States of America government has worked to reduce this type of discrimination by forming legal policies that govern against discrimination against its citizens regardless of race. The legal procedures are outlined in the united states constitution.
Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act is a law formed to protect citizens against discrimination of any kind. President George W. Bush signed a federal Act with two parts; a title prohibiting discrimination in health facilities and another stating that health insurance providers should not request genetic information in making decisions about the person’s eligibility in taking the insurance. The genetic information nondiscrimination, however, does not entirely protect the citizens from discrimination. For instance, it does not apply when an employer has less than fifteen employees in the organization.
The health insurance portability and accountability Act of 1996 is another legal law that protects the citizens by prohibiting individual insurance availability from being based on their health history. This prevents organizations from discriminating against the citizens by providing only services to people who have no background history of any health issues. Employers show an essential role in providing health insurance coverage. An employer may reduce the insurance cover cost based on the employee’s genetic information. Employees may be economically incented to hire employers who have fewer risks of developing a disease, which would cost their organization. The blacks lack great opportunities to work due to the perceived nature of existing deadly diseases from that race.
Professional policy, as indicated by the legal guidelines, all people should receive equal treatment regardless of their background. The genetic information nondiscrimination act title I state that there should be no discrimination in the provision of health facilities. The health providers should act in professionalism in performing their duties and treat all patients the same. The legal laws also state that other professionals, such as employers in an organization, should follow regulatory compliance to administer their functions. The law does not allow discrimination of any kind in any way. The professional policy requires them to provide equal services to people regardless of their race.
The legal and professional policies have different objectives, but the main goal is the same. Legal policies mainly focus on the institutions and provide guidelines for handling these functions in administering services to the people. Professional policies, on the other hand, focus on offering assistance. They are required to show most professionalism to the people at all times. The impact of legal policies is felt as it is easy to identify an institution that does not follow the rules. On the other, a doctor can work in a discrimination-free environment but still be discriminative in their work. It is upon them to willingly be professionals in their workspace.
In conclusion, there are no facts that prove blacks are more open to sickle cell disease. Sickle cell disease is a genetic blood illness and can affect anyone despite their race. African Americans suffering from sickle cell should not be discriminated instead treated with the most care.
Kwateng, M. (n.d.). Vassar College Digital Window @ Vassar Repackaging Racism: The Role of Sickle Cell Anemia in the Construction of Race as Biological. [PDF document]. Web.
Wakefield, E. O., Popp, J. M., Dale, L. P., Santanelli, J. P., Pantaleao, A., & Zempsky, W. T. (2017). perceived racial bias and health-related stigma among youth with Sickle Cell Disease. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 38(2), 129–134. Web.
Dyal, B. W., Abudawood, K., Chopped, T. M., Jean, S., Smith, V. M., Greenlee, A., Staton, L. M., Duckworth, L., Mandernach, M. W., Black, V., Heldermon, C. D., Yao, Y., Wilkie, D. J., & Ezenwa, M. O. (2021). Reflections of healthcare experiences of African Americans with Sickle Cell Disease or Cancer. Cancer Nursing, 44(1), E51-E63. Web.