With a high prevalence rate of smoking among pregnant adolescence, it is worthwhile to consider the consequences that result from smoking in this state (Punch, 2004). Not only does adolescent smoking lead to an increase in their morbidity rate and mortality rate, but they have also had long-term effects, as well as behavioral change, which becomes a challenge when trying to stop the behavior during the pregnancy period (Burns & Grove, 2007).
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to undertake or to find interventions that can help to improve this situation. One of the interventions is the nursing intervention, which plays a very vital role since nursing research is concerned with addressing the theoretical as well as the practical problems, which are important to the clinical nursing practice. The research area involves the full range of understanding human responses to good health and illness, which include biological, emotional as well as psychological manifestations and social facets of illness (Punch, 2004).
Summary of the Topics
In this article, Burns & Grove (2007) have presented several topics by stating the hypothesis followed by the constructs in order to give us the knowledge of the information or content of the article. This hypothesis serves to help us know how the intervention works or how it should be laid down in order to approve or disapprove the purpose of the study. Dependent and independent valuables are stated. The method for testing the hypothesis is stated by assigning the adolescence to one of the three groups (TFS, TFS- B, and UC) in a random manner. The article states the instruments used which include the use of phone calls conducted 10- 14 days after the day of contact form. A sample for the research is also given which was 470 and approving 142 after eliminating the ones that had signs of pregnancy complications. This has played a critical role in ensuring the validity of the research. This was achieved by asking the teenagers for their permission to be engaged in the study. The authors use content validity or face validity in order to enhance the validity of the study. Content validity is defined as the extent to which the device represents the content of interest (Punch, 2004). Interventions are carried out differently for the three groups. The results are assessed using saliva continine levels after the intervention program. In the results of testing, the hypotheses of the study are presented. To be more precise, a systematic account of the testing of each hypothesis is presented.
The framework that is presented is in the review is a form of a theoretical framework that focuses on the learning of new ways that will help to decrease the influence of self-defeating behaviors. Although the author uses good organizational skills in his literature, organizes it in a progressive manner, and presents the methodology in a coherent manner, his method of interventions is lacking. He should have grouped the adolescence according to dependent variables (Punch, 2004). This is because the causes of smoking for one group might differ from the causes in another group and thus calling for different interventions.
The category of design is used in experimental research as the experimental research uses random sampling. The participants are put the three groups by chance and permission is sort from the teenagers of receiving the intervention. It would have been better if the author used random questionnaires in the group intervention rather than in individuals (Punch, 2004).
The data sampling used is relevant for the study as it serves to measure what the intervention is meant to measure. According to Pallant (2005), internal consistency is the degree to which the items that make up the scale are all measuring the same underlying attribute. Internal consistency can be measured in several ways. By eliminating the pregnant adolescence that could be having other pregnancy complication has enhanced the validity of a scale to a degree of measuring what the study was intended to measure (Punch, 2004). This is therefore not a probability sample as some of the participants were pointed as being ineligible if they had signs, which were carefully examined and tested by their physician.
Research Variables/Concepts in This Study
The use of various variables in the study is used which include the dependent and independent variables. The dependent variables include teenagers’ attitudes towards the cognitive-behavioral theory. The independent variables include age, ethnicity and social-economic conditions (Pallant, 2005).
The social-economic condition is a conceptual definition of the variable since adolescence lacks the knowledge of detecting whether they come from rich or poor families. It is also operational since you may not know how to measure the social-economic status since living in homes without a father does not mean that a family is poor (Burns & Grove, 2007). In additions, the author has provided information on quality measurement by making sure that the reliability of research indicates how free it is from random error by eliminating the teenagers who had a bad attitude about the study in all three groups.
What Data Analysis Techniques (Statistics) Did the Author Use
In any quantitative study, it is important to have descriptive statistics of the data at the beginning of the analysis. By having data, being scanned into temporary database and verifying using SPSS package, has helped to decide on the type of data relevant hypotheses (Pallant, 2005). There are some useful normality tests to check if the data are normally distributed or not, these tests have some potential problems as the intended sample size for the test was not achieved. The data were analyzed in the form of percentages and variables were measured by using mean and standard deviation in order to assess the differences of the three groups (Pallant, 2005).
Interpretation of Results in Address All Objectives, Questions, or Hypotheses
The study has addressed the hypothesis as the data proves that the TFS-B compared to other groups shows that the intervention is more effective in achieving short-term prevention of smoking among adolescence with pregnancy. However, the smoking of pregnant adolescence shows no differences in their attitudes toward cognitive therapy (Burns & Grove, 2007). Obviously, these results cannot be generalized over the whole country based on such limited data. Undoubtedly, although the intervention would have been carried in a better way, the new cognitive intervention is a serious attempt to create reduce smoking for pregnant teenagers.
Burns, N. & Grove, S. (2007). Understanding nursing research: building an evidence-based practice. New York, NY: Saunders Elsevier
Pallant, J. (2005). SPSS survival manual. Maidenhead, Berkshire: Open University Press.
Punch, K. (2004). Introduction to Social Research: Qualitative & Quantitative Approaches. London: Sage.