The patient’s diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus implies an impairment in how her body uses and regulates sugar, resulting from a high circulation of glucose in the bloodstream. Such high levels can lead to issues related to the circulatory, nervous, and immune systems. Individuals who are middle-aged and older are most likely to get the condition, and the initial symptoms can be mild. However, as the disease progresses over time, the symptoms get more severe and adversely influence a patient’s everyday life.
Several implications of diabetes should be taken into consideration as they complicate the management of the condition by creating additional issues. For example, diabetic neuropathy occurs in case of nerve damage associated with high glucose levels, which injure nerves throughout the body, mainly in the feet and legs. Depending on the nerves that are being affected, diabetes-associated neuropathy can vary from mild pain or numbness to severe issues. Also, diabetic individuals have much higher chances of developing heart disease, as high blood pressure linked with the condition increases the force of blood through the arteries, thus damaging their walls. Besides, type 2 diabetes contributes to the slower rate of wound recovery. Poor circulation could be an issue for diabetic individuals, which makes it hard for the body to deliver the necessary nutrients, which makes them heal slower than normal as well as cause infections.
Adult obesity is a health challenge that emerges from a combination of factors and individual causes, ranging from lifestyle choices to genetics. Obese occurs when an individual’s BMI is equal to or higher than 30. Similar to diabetes, obesity contributes to the development of severe health issues limiting the everyday life of the affected individuals. In particular, obesity results in high blood pressure because the heart has to work harder to pump blood throughout the body, which puts additional strain on the arteries. Therefore, the risks of cardiac events and heart disease are higher in obese individuals as a result of atrial enlargement, ventricular enlargement, and atherosclerosis. Besides, respiratory issues associated with obesity result from the mechanical compression on the lungs and the diaphragm, leading to restrictive pulmonary damage and reduced pulmonary muscle strength.
Exercise is beneficial for managing both diabetes and obesity and is among the central lifestyle components within programs intended to address the problems. Resistance and aerobic training have been shown to facilitated improved glucose regulation (Kirwan, Sacks, & Nieuwoudt, 2018). Adults maintaining a physically active lifestyle can lower their risks of impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance while also establishing high cardiovascular fitness (Kirwan et al., 2018). Due to the weight loss benefits associated with exercising, obese adults can reduce their BMI by actively engaging in regular activities. However, when including exercise as a part of type 2 diabetes and obese patients, it is essential to consider such limitations as cardiac problems associated with exercising, respiratory limitations, joint pain and injury, as well as heat exhaustion and dehydration. All of the mentioned challenges require healthcare providers to develop the appropriate amount of exercise that would be safe for a particular patient. Besides, a gradual increase in exercise longevity and intensity could help individuals with type 2 diabetes and obesity develop their stamina over time, thus building their muscle strength and reducing the percentage of body fat.
Kirwan, J. P., Sacks, J., & Nieuwoudt, S. (2017). The essential role of exercise in the management of type 2 diabetes. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, 84(7 Suppl 1), S15–S21.