Violent Crime and Victimization
Xenophobic ideas are especially common for terrorist attacks, as offenders often demonstrate fear and hate regarding individuals from other countries. Patrick Crusius was greatly motivated by the far-right principles, which highlight anti-immigrant views. Similar concepts are presented in Breivik’s manifesto, outlining the dangers of enabling people from other nations. His writing states that “Christian Europe is being swamped by Muslim immigrants and by the higher birth rate of Muslims already here” (Walton 2012, p. 5). According to Kari Partapouli, the right-wing extremists are explicitly focused on the foreign population, as “they see immigrants as a threat to our establishment, to our society” (Democracy Now! 2011). While in the case of Breivik, it is the Islamic population in Norway, for Crusius, it is the Latino population that presents a menace to white communities.
Both shooters follow a similar ideology, specifying foreign nations’ representatives as a dangerous group. Crusius and Breivik are majorly led by a belief that “multiculturalism is a threat to our society” (Democracy Now! 2011). Breivik expressed these considerations in his violent terrorist attacks, yelling “I’m going to kill you all” at the campsite of Norway’s ruling party (ABC News 2011). Crusius is following corresponding attitudes towards representatives of other cultures and ethnicities, manifesting incredible hatred towards immigrants.
The thoughts expressed in the El Paso shooter’s manifesto are also supported by hyper-masculine beliefs, which present the superiority of the male gender. Both Crusius and Breivik see women as “objects of male libido or a masculine system of protection,” meaning that females are to be always guarded by men (Walton 2012, p. 10). Breivik also reports on women who decline such security, claiming that “if the women act so as to make them unworthy of this protection, they may legitimately be killed” (Walton 2012, p. 10). Breivik and Crusius express hypermasculine ideas in their shootings, entitling themselves as individuals who are committing necessary acts.
Prisons and Prison Abolition
Demonstrations of discrimination and violence towards transgender people are especially common for the criminal justice system. A vital difficulty experienced by transgender people is the way that other individuals perceive them. A trans person is frequently misgendered, harassed, or abused based on their beliefs and appearance. For example, Maria reports that she was “terrified because you don’t know what is going to happen to you” (Where Justice Ends 2019). Another inmate, Michelle, states, “I was assaulted in every single prison I have been to,” thus enduring both physical and emotional pain (Where Justice Ends 2019). As a result of such actions, most transgender people suffer from violence and torture during their imprisonment, caused by discrimination from the justice system.
People with transgender identities suffer from instances of inequity and unfairness that exist in multiple laws. Such individuals are subjected to discrimination and hate crimes and “have a very high murder rate and are subject to a great deal of violence” (Spade 2011, p. 81). Just as other minorities, transgender people are also largely influenced by increased numbers of brutal crimes. Furthermore, “trans murders are not investigated, or trans peoples murderers are given less punishment than is typical in murder sentencing” (Spade 2011, p. 81). In contrast with other felonies, transgender-related violations are not as efficiently prosecuted, creating a striking inequity for this group. Altogether, there is an unjust representation of transgender people in the justice system, which forces individuals of this minority to encounter unfair trial instances.
Wrongful impressions regarding transgender people are also evident in police interactions when representatives of this group of people. “Queer and trans people are in danger of police targeting,” meaning that police officers hold negative attitudes towards them (Barnard Center for Research on Women 2015). These beliefs influence the incarceration rates and promote violence among authorities. According to Spade, “police are major agents of homophobia and transphobia,” producing a threat to transgender individuals (Barnard Center for Research on Women 2015). In numerous cases, if a transgender person is involved, the law enforcement frequently views them as the offender, even if there is no indication of that.
While in prison, transgender felons might even be refused necessary medication, as seen in the case of Ashley Diamond, who was denied her right to medical attention. Moreover, transgender people encounter severe abuse and bullying while imprisoned. As stated by a trans victim, “my incarceration consisted of physical abuse, name-calling, and rape” (Where Justice Ends 2019). Overall, transgender people can experience tremendous distress and brutality from the criminal justice system, from unfair laws to negating their inherent rights.
Criminal activities that transgender people are involved in range from drug possession to criminalized work. Spade argues that trans populations face “employment discrimination, family rejection and difficulty accessing school medical care and social services” (Spade 2011, p. 89). These elements appear to “increase our [transgender] rate of participation in criminalized work to survive” (Spade 2011, p. 89). Large numbers of trans individuals are forced to rely on felonies to obtain necessities given the lack of governmental care and support for this minority group.