Personality disorder attracts so many efforts at amateur psychology because an individual’s personality is influenced by experiences, environment, and inherited characteristics. A personality disorder is a way of thinking, feeling, and behaving that deviates from expectations of the culture, causes distress or problems functioning, and lasts over time. Personalities are flexible and thus psychologists come up with efforts mostly at the amateur stage so that they may help avoid late personal disorder at the adult stage of life (Ashenhurst et al., 2016). They try to look into the experiences, behaviors, and thoughts of a person at the amateur stage to help them react in fairly predictable ways as they move through life.
Various institutions in our society view lying differently; in business when they are lies, it diminishes trust between human beings, if the truth is not told, trust between the producers and consumers diminishes. In our government, when people lie, there is no trust between the government and the citizens as well as government workers amongst themselves. Lying can be cognitively depleting, it can increase the risk that people will be punished and can also threaten people’s self-worth by preventing them from seeing themselves as ‘good people and can erode trust especially in religion. Science mostly views lying as a natural stage in child development and children become more sophisticated liars as they age.
Such views affect an individual in that can lead to anxiety with all the maintenance and coverups going on, if one worries about being caught, it can lead to panic. It may also increase the risk of one being punished and can also threaten one’s self-worth by preventing them from seeing themselves good (Ashenhurst et al., 2016). At times lying allows people to feel better about themselves, to make themselves look better in other people’s eyes, and to maintain a good relationship.
Attitudes strongly influence social thoughts and can predict what someone will do. How someone thinks and feels about something gives an insight into how they process the information they take in, as well as what they do with it. A strong attitude towards honesty should allow one to predict that another person will tell the truth, but sometimes it does not apply since you may need to protect someone’s feelings thus you just tell a lie or expect a lie. Sometimes one might have an attitude that dressing comfortably is more important than how they look, there are a lot of situations that might keep one from expressing this attitude since often one has to wear certain types of clothes to work, church, or events.
Attitude behavior connection under time pressure can predict how an attitude may be seen. In this case, attitudes operate much like heuristics which allows one to work with very little thought. Arrogant deceivers are admired because it is perceived as ‘a stable relief of superiority and exaggerated self-importance that are manifested with excessive and presumptuous claims (Klein et al., 2018).’ People say that niceness is not the only route to success, dark strategies can lead to success.
Some trends in behavior suggest that our society is currently in an era of narcissism, which is on the rise and out of control, we spend most hours a day on social media posting about ourselves and checking outposts of friends. Celebrity worshipping is on a rise, some of which have done little other than engage in relentless self-promotion. Presidential candidates boast about the size of their genitalia and are given supportive crowds chanting. Teenagers incessantly monitor how they are received by peers they barely know, the annoying ubiquity of the ‘selfie stick’ suggesting how powerful the need to take a picture of oneself is these days (Klein et al., 2018). Parental overvaluation invalidates a child’s innate sense of vigor, greatness, and perfection. It results in deficit in mirroring developmental arrest in which mirroring is craved as an adult in the hopes of providing what was never given.
Some personality disorders are little more than descriptions of undesirable styles. Some are stigmatizations in that a disapproval and judgment of a person or group of people because they do not fit their community’s social norms. A personality disorder differs significantly from their culture in two or more areas. It applies across contexts such as schoolwork, work area, and home. Personality disorders are more than incompetence, for example being a bully, inefficient or corrupt, this behavior results in a dysfunctional workplace for others. Some create and maintain a toxic culture epitomized by mistrust, dishonesty, and lack of equity making workplaces uncomfortable for others (Krypotos et al., 2017). Individuals with personality disorders who exhibit an inflexible personality style cause distress and impairment and create problems for themselves and others.
When a therapist or theorist focuses primarily on people whose problems are similar to theirs, both clinicians and clients might have some positives and negatives. The clients get help to discover and access within themselves the restricted resources they need to solve problems on their own since they are person-centered, emotional-focused positive psychology. The theorists help them to accept their situation and be committed in therapy. It helps them to explore emotions and thoughts and make sense of why a client is thinking and feeling a certain way. There might be a possible personal clash since the client feels that his or her treatment could be diluted or they are not the sole focus (Krypotos et al., 2017). The client can get quite emotional when they listen to the side of the story of the particular therapist and might have some negative thoughts.
Ashenhurst, J. R., Harden, K. P., Corbin, W. R., & Fromme, K. (2016). Alcohol-related genes show an enrichment of associations with a persistent externalizing factor. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 125(7), 933–945.
Klein, O., Hardwicke, T. E., Aust, F., Breuer, J., Danielsson, H., Mohr, A. H., IJzerman, H., Nilsonne, G., Vanpaemel, W., & Frank, M. C. (2018). A practical guide for transparency in psychological science. Collabra. Psychology, 4(1), 20.
Krypotos, A.-M., Blanken, T. F., Arnaudova, I., Matzke, D., & Beckers, T. (2017). A primer on Bayesian analysis for experimental psychopathologists. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 8(2), 140–157.