Hypertension: Diagnostics and Treatment

Paper Info
Page count 6
Word count 1783
Read time 7 min
Topic Health
Type Research Paper
Language 🇺🇸 US

Summary

Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, is a condition when the blood pressure is higher than normal. The changes are based on someone’s activities, and the issue may lead to a complicated lifestyle for the patient. When people have this ailment, they might experience headaches, shortness of illness, and nosebleeds. It is always important to visit a physician whenever someone detects any sign of hypertension. This paper researches hypertension by exploring epidemiological statistics, risk factors, clinical manifestation, implications, treatments, and social determinants, among other essentials.

Epidemiological Statistics of Hypertension

Many people in the US and the world suffer from hypertension. Approximately 26% of the world’s population, a number close to 975 million, has hypertension (Itoh, 2021). By 2025, the prevalence is expected to rise to 29% (Signorelli, 2017). The reason why there might be an increase in the issue is due to the changing consumerism in the market. The illness is currently one of the reasons why health could be an issue in the world, as it may result in death. The risk of hypertension increases as someone ages (Surma et al., 2020). The illness is most common in men at the age of 64 and beyond, while for women, it starts at 65, as shown in Figure 1 below. An estimation shows that 46% of adults who have hypertension are not aware that they have the condition with them (Signorelli, 2017). Only 42% of adults are treated after being diagnosed with hypertension (Signorelli, 2017). 21% or 1 in 5 adults suffering from hypertension have controlled it on a significant basis (McMullen et al., 2021). Therefore, the prevalence of hypertension is highly significant in society.

Statistics of hypertension on age
Figure 1. Statistics of hypertension on age

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), hypertension leads to the most premature deaths globally (Itoh, 2021). The organization notes that the global target from 2010 was to reduce non-communicable diseases by 33%, including hypertension, by 2030 (Itoh, 2021). Facts about high blood pressure show that the illness is contributing to more than 516,000 deaths in the US as of 2019 (Signorelli, 2017). The disease has led to a cost of $131 billion every year in the US while trying to combat it (Signorelli, 2017). Men have 50% of hypertension cases compared to women counterparts who only have 44% (Itoh, 2021). Thus, as the statistics show, hypertension is a sensitive illness that should be controlled by all possible means, not only in the US but also in other parts of the world.

Risk Factors

Risk factors of hypertension include several issues that need to be addressed. Age is a key determinant when it comes to hypertension, as one’s risk of the illness increases as the years go higher (McMullen et al., 2021). The race is also an important factor to say because the illness is common for people of African heritage, which develops at earlier stages when compared to whites. Family history could be another factor if a patient is born in a family where the issue is widespread (Zanchetti, 2017). Obesity could lead to this condition as the more the weight, the more the body needs oxygen and other elements in the tissues, as shown in Figure 2. Other risk factors include a sedentary lifestyle, smoking, and absence of potassium among other factors.

Risk factors for hypertension 
Figure 2. Risk factors for hypertension 

Clinical Manifestation

Most people with high blood pressure may not experience signs and symptoms. Even when blood pressure readings indicate some need for intervention, these individuals will seem okay (Shalimova, 2021). However, some will have headaches, shortness of breath, and nose bleeding, among other issues. The symptoms may not occur until high blood pressure has reached a significant level that needs the doctor’s attention (Zanchetti, 2017). A clinician should check blood pressure in both hands to determine any course of action regarding the same.

Implications

Implications for uncontrolled hyperextension may lead to various challenging health concerns. For instance, due to hypertension, a patient can have hardened arteries that result in stroke. A weakening of blood vessels is evident when someone has hypertension, a condition known as an aneurysm (Signorelli, 2017). Additionally, some patients may have instances of memory troubles where they are not able to maintain retentive sensory capability as a result of hypertensive conditions. When the condition worsens, it leads to limited blood flow in the brain, causing what is referred to as vascular dementia.

Treatment

Hypertension is treatable after one is diagnosed, depending on the medical history concerning the same problem during medication. The most important point to note under this section is a change of lifestyle for patients with high blood pressure could be of notable help in curing the condition. Additionally, it is recommended that a patient eats heart-healthy foods that have less salt (Surma et al., 2020). Exercising is vital as it can lead to maintaining a body weight that would lead to obesity, one of the risk factors for hypertension. Furthermore, the patient needs to limit the amount of alcohol they take.

Some medications may be prescribed by the doctor to treat hypertension. Diuretics or water pills might help one’s kidneys to eliminate sodium and water from the body. The drugs that are necessary in this case include thiazide and loop. Other medications include the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors that contain captopril, Zestril, and Lotensin. They help the blood vessels to relax hence blocking any form of natural chemicals. Others comprise but are not limited to calcium channel blockers and Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) (Surma et al., 2020). When a patient is given the above medication, hypertension will be combatted significantly.

Social Determinants

Studies show that hypertension might be determined by various social elements apart from age. Age and gender play a key role in this matter. Men may be at more risk when compared to women, while older people are at higher risk when compared to youth and adults (Zanchetti, 2017). Low education also plays a role as those who may not show advanced skills in lifestyle monitoring and symptoms will be affected. Additionally, those who have urban accommodation may be at risk as they do not indulge in physical activities as compared to the ones in remote areas. Other social issues that determine the risk of hypertension include stress, health behaviors, and psychological support.

Barriers to Improving Client’s Status

Hypertension can be a sensitive issue if not taken care of as early as possible. Some barriers include a lack of conforming to treatment measures such as following the drug prescriptions. Furthermore, due to people’s ignorance, there are low chances that call for a lifestyle check on how individuals may be living. Failure to take the right medicine and adherence to follow-up clinics may make the issue have low chances of getting out completely. When there is a communication barrier between a physician and a patient, care provision would be a challenge hence making the condition deteriorate.

Factors that Promote Healing

The client’s health can be promoted by various factors that can be realized during diagnosis or treatment. Management of condition through critical analysis of all stages is important. It enables a doctor to spot any improvement and recommend the most relevant course of action in case there are drawbacks. Additionally, having the right medication and not just a prescription of drugs is important (McMullen et al., 2021). When a patient is given medicine depending on the level of hypertension, it helps them recover fast and in a more stable way. The reliability of the physician and the availability of the client ensure that care is coordinated in the most relevant way. Other factors include adhering to a code of ethics whereby, a doctor will be obliged to save a life by doing the right action while on duty.

Public Programs and Prevention Strategies

The primary prevention of hypertension is done according to the National High Blood Pressure Education Program Coordinating Committee. The committee recommends for prevention of the illness by having a population-based approach and comprehensive targeted strategy that is central to people with a high risk of hypertension (Surma et al., 2020). Thus, the approach emphasizes six approaches, namely engaging in moderate physical activity, maintaining low body weight, limitation of alcohol intake, reduction of sodium consumption, and consuming more fruits.

The secondary prevention strategy at the community level includes measures that identify and treat asymptomatic persons with risk factors for hypertension. Thus, it could be achieved by screening tests done without clinical presentation of the illness. This should be done specifically to people with obesity and metabolic syndrome (Zanchetti, 2017). Tertiary strategies involve caring for the established disease with the intention of restoring the issue or minimizing the effects that might be brought by hypertension complications.

Development of Teaching Plan

To train individuals on how to prevent, cure and end high blood pressure, there is a need to have a teaching plan that will enable the individuals to be free from the illness. This paper recommends dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH). This is a plan that has a proven record to help people when lowering their blood pressure (Shalimova, 2021). Through DASH, people will be motivated to eat healthy foods without excess fats, salt, and other elements. Specifically, the plan will encourage the eating of vegetables, fruits, and whole grains (McMullen et al., 2021). Through the model, people will be guided on how to avoid fatty foods and embark on eating items such as fish, poultry, beans, and vegetable oils. Limiting sugar content in beverages will be important in combatting the hypertension issue.

Evaluation

The evaluation of the teaching plan will be based on feasibility and reception by the community members. It is important to consider whether or not the items that are recommended can be easily bought or brought to the table by the individuals. Therefore, since most of the members can follow the basic instructions concerning the plan, the intervention measures shall be feasible since most of the foods are readily available in the community (Itoh, 2021). When the community members are enlightened to know everything that concerns hypertension, it will be possible to fight the issue in society hence better lives.

Hypertension is a sensitive issue in society that need to be combatted. It makes people lose their lives as a result of the severe effects of the illness. To control high blood pressure, patients are advised to monitor their lifestyle by checking the type of foods taken and the activities undertaken. The community can be sensitized by the use of the DASH model, which helps prevent issues associated with the illness. All members of the public should be careful and vigilant in fighting the illness in society.

References

Itoh, H. (2021). PS-1. Future interaction among the international society of hypertension (ISH), Japan Society of hypertension (JSH), and ISSHP. Pregnancy Hypertension, 25(56), 3-6. Web.

McMullen, T., Mandelbaum, J., Myers, K., Brightharp, C., Kavanaugh, K., & Hicks, S. (2021). Expanding Opportunities for Data Dissemination Through Collaborative Writing Teams in Public Health Practice Settings. Health Promotion Practice, 6(3), 152483992110293. Web.

Shalimova, A. (2021). Abstract P131: Risk factors and ways of influencing masked uncontrolled hypertension. Hypertension, 78(34), 12-32. Web.

Signorelli, S. (2017). How to treat patients with essential hypertension and peripheral arterial disease. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 23(31), 5. Web.

Surma, S., Szyndler, A., & Narkiewicz, K. (2020). Salt and arterial hypertension — epidemiological, pathophysiological, and preventive aspects. Arterial Hypertension, 24(4), 148-158. Web.

Zanchetti, A. (2017). Epidemiological, pathophysiological, and therapeutic aspects of hypertension. Journal Of Hypertension, 35(10), 1917-1918. Web.

Cite this paper

Reference

NerdyBro. (2022, November 13). Hypertension: Diagnostics and Treatment. Retrieved from https://nerdybro.com/hypertension-diagnostics-and-treatment/

Reference

NerdyBro. (2022, November 13). Hypertension: Diagnostics and Treatment. https://nerdybro.com/hypertension-diagnostics-and-treatment/

Work Cited

"Hypertension: Diagnostics and Treatment." NerdyBro, 13 Nov. 2022, nerdybro.com/hypertension-diagnostics-and-treatment/.

References

NerdyBro. (2022) 'Hypertension: Diagnostics and Treatment'. 13 November.

References

NerdyBro. 2022. "Hypertension: Diagnostics and Treatment." November 13, 2022. https://nerdybro.com/hypertension-diagnostics-and-treatment/.

1. NerdyBro. "Hypertension: Diagnostics and Treatment." November 13, 2022. https://nerdybro.com/hypertension-diagnostics-and-treatment/.


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NerdyBro. "Hypertension: Diagnostics and Treatment." November 13, 2022. https://nerdybro.com/hypertension-diagnostics-and-treatment/.